NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 5 Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System in Hindi and English Medium. All the solutions of Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Politics in India since Independence chapter 5 are updated for new academic session 2022-2023.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 MCQ

Q1

Which of these statements about the 1967 elections is correct?

[A]. Congress won the Lok Sabha elections and the Assembly elections in many states.
[B]. Congress lost both Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.
[C]. Congress lost majority in the Lok Sabha but formed a coalition government with the support of some other parties.
[D]. Congress retained power at the Centre with an increased majority.
Q2

Whom would you identify with the following slogans or phrases: Garibi Hatao!

[A]. Lai Bahadur Shastri
[B]. Syndicate
[C]. Indira Gandhi
[D]. Mahatma Gandhi
Q3

Which of the following statement about the Grand Alliance of 1971 is correct? The Grand Alliance

[A]. Was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.
[B]. Was formed by non-Communist parties.
[C]. Had a clear political and ideological programme.
[D]. Was formed by all non-Congress parties.

How should a political party resolve its internal differences? Here are some suggestions. Think of each and list out their advantages and shortcomings?

Follow the footsteps of the party president

Follow the footsteps of the party president.
Advantage:
If the party follows the footsteps of the party president, there will be a lot of discipline and unity within the party.
Shortcoming:
The party president can take as well as force its decision without considering the views of its party members. So, the inner democracy may get weakened.

Listen to the majority group

Listen to the majority group
Advantage:
If the party listens to the majority group, there will be more confidence among the party members and this will strengthen the inner democracy.
Shortcoming:
If the party listens to the majority group, factionalism or groupism may increase in the party. One faction may try to back another faction to collect support.

Secret ballot voting on every issue

Secret ballot voting on every issue
Advantage:
Secret ballot voting is an appropriate system as it is more democratic. Through it, any member can convey his views.
Shortcoming:
Sometimes, the party members may vote through secret ballot and ignore the whip of the party issued by the party president. It may also prove harmful for the party.

Consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party

Consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party
Advantage:
The beginners and inexperienced candidates will be benefited if they consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party and also follow their procedure.
Shortcoming:
If the party members only consult the senior and experienced leaders and follow their guidelines and methodology, their hold will get strengthened in the party.

State which of these were reasons for the defeat of the Congress in 1967. Give reasons for your answer?

(a) The absence of a charismatic leader in the Congress party.
(b) Split within the Congress party.
(c) Increased mobilization of regional, ethnic and communal groups.
(d) Increasing unity among non-Congress parties.
(e) Internal differences within the Congress party.

Answer:

    • (a) The absence of a charismatic leader in the Congress party: It may not be the reason of the defeat of Congress party. Because there were so many experienced and charismatic leaders in the party.
    • (b) Split within the Congress party: It was one of the main reasons of the defeat of Congress party as the party was split into two groups. Syndicate had a strong hold over the Congress party while Indira’s supporters were more inclined towards their leader. One group was in support of capitalism and liberalisation while the other were against it.
    • (c) Increased mobilization of regional, ethnic and communal groups: Due to the emergence of the Akali Dal in Punjab, D.M.K. in Tamil Nadu got and other regional parties, Congress had to face a setback. The party could not get majority at the centre and was deprived of power in various states.
    • (d) Increasing unity among non-Congress parties: There was no unity among non-Congress parties. So the non-Congress parties got benefit in other provinces and thus this could be a reason for the defeat of Congress.
    • (e) Internal differences within the party were one of the major causes of its defeat as there was no unity and the leaders were standing against each other.

What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s?

The factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s were the following:

    • Socialist recommendations became the main projects during this period.
      Indira Gandhi campaigned to put into practice land reform laws and land ceiling legislation.
    • She ended her too much reliance on other political parties and strengthened her own party’s position and recommended the dissolution of Lok Sabha in December’ 1970.
    • The problems in East Pakistan and Indo- Pak war to establish Bangladesh as an independent one, also improved the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
    • Indira Gandhi’s government was not accepted only as a guardian of the poor and underprivileged but as a physically powerful government also.
    • Congress became popular among different social sections and gained dominance again.
What does the term ‘syndicate’ mean in the context of the Congress party of the sixties? What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress party?

Syndicate was a group of powerful and influential leaders from within the Congress. They played a powerful role during the sixties in the Congress party:

    • Syndicate was a group led by K. Kamraj, who was the former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and then the president of the Congress party. It also includes some powerful leaders like S.K. Patil, S. Nijalingappa, N. Sanjeeva Reddy and Atulya Ghosh.
    • In the sixties, Syndicate played a crucial role by installing both Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi as a Prime Minister.
    • Syndicate played a key say in Indira Gandhi’s first council of Ministers and formulation and implementation of policies.
    • After the Congress split, the leaders of the syndicate and those who were showing faithfulness to them stayed with the Congress (O), led by Syndicate and Congress (R), led by Indira Gandhi.
    • Congress (R), won popularity after 1971 and Syndicate lost its power and prestige.
Discuss the major issue which led to the formal split of the Congress Party in 1969.

The formal split of the Congress took place in 1969 on the matter of nomination of the candidate during the presidential elections:

    1. Despite Mrs. Gandhi’s reservations, the ‘syndicate’ managed to nominate her long-time opponent and then speaker of the Lok Sabha, N. Sanjeeva Reddy, as the official Congress candidate for the ensuing Presidential elections.
    2. Indira Gandhi showed her retaliation by encouraging the then Vice-President, V.V. Giri, to file his nomination as an independent candidate.
    3. During election, the then Congress President,S. Nijalingappa issued a ‘whip’ asking all the Congress MPs and MLAs to vote in favour of Sanjeeva Reddy, who was the official candidate of the party.
    4. The supporters of Indira Gandhi requisitioned a special meeting of the AICC (that is why this faction came to be known as ‘requisitionists’) but was refused.
    5. On the other hand, after silently supporting V.V. Giri, the Prime Minister openly called for a ‘conscience vote’ which meant that the MPs and MLAs from the Congress should be free to vote the way they want.
    6. Election went in favour of V.V. Giri, the independent candidate, and the defeat of Sanjeeva Reddy, the official Congress candidate.
      The defeat of the official Congress candidate formalized the split in the party into two:
      Congress (O), i.e. organization led by Syndicate, known as Old Congress.
      Congress (R), i.e. requisitionists led by Indira Gandhi, known as New Congress.

Read the passage and answer the questions below:
…Indira Gandhi changed the Congress into highly centralised and undemocratic party organisation, from the earlier federal, democratic and ideological formation that Nehru had led…. But this … could not have happened had not Indira Gandhi changed the entire nature of politics. This new, populist politics turned political ideology… into a mere electoral discourse, use of various slogans not meant to be translated into government policies…. During its great electoral victories in the early 1970s, amidst the celebration, the Congress party as a political organisation died…. —Sudipta Kaviraj

What according to the author is the difference between the strategies of Nehru and Indira Gandhi?

According to the author, the main difference between the strategies of Nehru and Indira Gandhi is that Jawahar Lal Nehru led the Congress into federal, democratic and ideological nature whereas Indira Gandhi converted it into a highly centralized and undemocratic party.

Why does the author say that the Congress party died in the seventies?

Congress party died in the seventies due to changing nature of Congress, the new populist politics turned political ideology into a mere electoral discourage and the use of various slogans never meant to be translated into government policies i.e. electoral victories of 1970s.

In what way, did the change in the Congress party affect other political parties also?

The change in the Congress party affected other political parties also as they formed SVD (Samyukt Vidhayak Dal) in the form of coalitions and grand alliance.

Political Science Part 2 Chapter 5 Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 5
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 5 in English Medium
Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 5
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 5 Answers