Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 10 Training in Sports in Hindi as well as English medium updated for new academic session CBSE 2023-24. Study material and notes for class 12 Physical Education in term wise exams 2023-24 are available on website to free download in PDF.
In Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 10, you will learn about the definition of Strength, its Types and Methods to Improve Strength- Isometric, Isotonic and Isokinetic, Endurance: Definition, Types and Methods to Develop Endurance- Continuous Training, Interval Training and Fartlek Training, Speed: Definition, Types and Methods to Develop Speed- Acceleration Run and Pace, Flexibility: Definition, Types and Methods to Improve Flexibility, Coordinative Abilities: Definition and Types, Circuit Training- Introduction and Importance.
Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 10 Question Answers
What is meant by Strength in Sports?
“Strength is the ability to overcome resistance or to act against resistance.”
Strength is one of the most important motor components of fitness and plays a major role in all sporting events. It is the amount of force that muscles can produce to complete a task. In simple words, strength is the ability of a muscle or a group of muscles to act or overcome resistance. The development of strength also influences the other motor components of fitness like speed and endurance. As all movements in sports are caused by muscular contraction, therefore, it can be said that strength is a part and parcel of all the motor abilities, technical skills and tactical actions.
It is the ability of a muscle to overcome maximum resistance in a single repetition or single maximal voluntary contraction. Maximum strength means to exert force against resistance in maximal effort. Though maximum strength does not hold much importance in majority of sports but is certainly required in sports like long jump, shot put, javelin throw, weightlifting, discuss throw, etc.
It is the ability of the muscles to overcome resistance as fast as possible. Explosive strength is highly specific to the nature of movement and is greatly influenced by motor coordination. This type of strength is mainly used in spiking of volleyball, jumps in basketball, sprint events, etc.
Strength endurance can be static or dynamic strength depending upon whether the movement is isometric (static) or isotonic (dynamic). This type of strength is mainly used in long distance races, swimming, distance cycling, Tug of War (static) etc.
What is role of Speed in Sports?
“The prerequisite to do motor actions under given conditions (movement task, external force, individual prerequisite) in minimum of time.”
Johnson and Nelson defined speed as “the capacity of an individual to perform successive movement of the same pattern at a fast rate.”
Speed is an ability to do task in minimum possible time. Speed has a complex nature and depends considerably on the central nervous system. Speed ability, in sports, signifies the ability to execute motor movements as quickly as possible. These movements can be cyclic or acyclic in nature.
These include mobility of the nervous system, explosive strength of an individual, correct technique of performing a task, bio-chemical reserves and metabolic power of an individual, flexibility, and certain psychic factors like optimum arousal, attention, motivation, concentration, ability to relax etc.
Methods for Developing Speed
Speed is a motor ability that depends on genetic and environmental factors. Genetic factors, as we all know, cannot be manipulated. An individual having fast twitch fibres in a comparatively higher percentage than slow twitch fibres will have more speed. Whereas the individual who has a high percentage of slow twitch fibres will have better endurance.
The ratio of these muscle fibres cannot be changed. Therefore, it can be said that the genetic make-up of an individual sets the limit on the speed of an individual. The following are the most commonly used methods to develop speed of an individual.