Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 8 Biomechanics and Sports

Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 8 Biomechanics and Sports in Hindi and English Medium updated for academic session 2021-2022 as per the latest CBSE term wise syllabus. Students can download all the important questions and study material related to chapter 8 of class 12 Physical Education.

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In 12th Physical Education Chapter 8, we will study about Meaning and Importance of Biomechanics in Sports, Types of Movements (Flexion, Extension, Abduction, and Adduction), Newton’s Laws of Motion, and Its application in Sports and Friction and Sports.

Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 8 Question Answers




What is the Meaning of Biomechanics?

During the early 1970s the international community adopted the terms Biomechanics to describe the application of mechanical principles in the study of living organisms. Biomechanics is the combination of two words- bio and mechanics. Bio means, something pertaining to living beings or life, whereas Mechanics is the branch of physics which studies movement or motion of an object or body with the help of mechanical principles. Thus, when the study of mechanics is limited to living structures and their function, especially the human body, it is called biomechanics.

Within “mechanics” there are two sub-fields of study. One is statics which is the study of systems that are in a state of constant motion either at rest (with no motion) or moving with a constant velocity; and the second one is dynamics, which is the study of systems in motion in which acceleration is present, which may involve kinematics and kinetics. Whereas, Kinetics is the study of the forces associated with motion, including forces causing motion and forces resulting from motion.




Definitions of Sports Biomechanics

    • “The area of study between wherein knowledge and methods of mechanics are applied to the structure and function of the living human system.”
    • “The area of study where the knowledge and methods of mechanics are applied to the structure and function of the living human system.”
    • “Biomechanics is the science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on a human body and the effects produced by these forces”.
What do you know about Movement?

Movement is one of the things that differentiates a living thing from a non-living thing. Movement refers to a change in the position of an object. In the human body, it takes place when the living organism moves a body part or a combination of parts to bring without a change in the position. We use the term locomotion to describe the movement which results in the change of position of the whole organism. It is important to understand the difference between the two – movement and locomotion – in relation to living things. Movement is the displacement of a body or its parts from their original position to a new position.



What is the role of Friction in Sports?

In sports, friction in human movement varies widely depending on different sports because each sport has its own movements and surface of the playing field. For example, in Athletics (running), the surface is a track and the movement is linear or curvy linear. Here, the sports person has to wear shoes with spikes. However, in other events in Athletics like discuss throw and shot put, the surface is hard and movement is rotatory so the shoes are relatively flat.

In football, where surface is grassy and the players need greater stability to control the ball and make quick movements, they wear studs or football boots to increase friction. In hockey, badminton, tennis grip taps are used by the player to increase friction. In shot put, javelin throw, gymnastics magnesium powder is used to increase friction. Thus to adjust friction, the two surfaces should be compatible with each other, to provide desired movement in sports.