Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 5 Children and Women in Sports

Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 5 Children and Women in Sports in Hindi and English Medium updated for CBSE session 2021-2022 free to download. All the contents are divided in short, very short and long answers type questions. NCERT textbook for 12th Phy. Edu chapter 3 is also given here in PDF file format to prepare the chapter for CBSE exam – 2021-2022. Download Class 12 NCERT Solutions App for all subjects.
In 12th Physical Education Chapter 5, we will study about Motor development and factors affecting it, Exercise guidelines at different stages of growth and development, Common postural deformities-knock knees, flat foot, round shoulders, Lordosis, Kyphosis, Scoliosis and bow legs and their respective corrective measures, Sports participation of women in India, Special consideration (menarche and menstrual dysfunction) and Female athlete triad (osteoporosis, amenorrhea, eating disorders).

Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 5 Question Answers




What is Motor Development?

Before we start discussion on the term Motor Development, let us start with the basic understanding about it. The word Motor, here, refers to movement of human body, whereas the word Development refers to growth and changes that occur as life progresses. Such changes may be result of age or experience. Thus, we can say that motor development refers to the development of a child’s bones, muscles and ability to move around and manipulate her or his evironment. Motor Development refers to “the changes in motor behaviour over the lifespan and the processes which underlie these changes”.
Stability, Locomotor and Manipulative Skills
Fundamental movement skills provide a foundation for many physical activities including play, games, outdoor recreation and sports. Fundamental movement skills include stability, locomotive, and manipulative or object control and skills.

Stability skills involve the body balancing either in one place (static) or while in motion (dynamic). Stability skills in this resource include landing, balance (static and dynamic) and rotation.
Locomotor Skills involve the body moving in any direction from one point to another. Locomotor skills include walking, running, dodging, jumping, hopping and skipping.
Manipulative skills involve handling and controlling objects with the hand, the foot or an implement (stick, bat or racquet).




Lifestyle of mother:
An individual’s growth and development journey starts in the mother’s womb as a zygote. For the next nine months of foetal period the zygote develops extremities, teeth, nose, eyes, ears, central nerve system etc. During this period the baby is totally dependent on the mother. As a result, the mother lifestyle affects the baby. An unhealthy lifestyle like imbibing certain medicines, drugs, smoking, alcohol and other unhealthy food leads to growth deficiency, CNS dysfunctions, other anomalies and complications. Maternal nutrition should be balanced and must include all nutrients like protein, calcium, iron-rich foods, vitamins, and extra calories as per requirement of the body.

Genetic factors:
Abnormal development can be caused by gene-based disorders or chromosomal disorders. Deformities like heart defects, respiratory distress syndrome, Musculo-skeletal deformities etc. and Down Syndrome, which includes short stature, late or no speech development, slow development of fine motor skills etc. may happen due to genetic factors.

Learning:
Learning is one of the important factors that affect growth and development. Learning requires readiness to seek or acquire new information or skills. A child must be physiologically ready to develop strength, endurance and flexibility that will help to control the body, and psychologically ready to acquire skills. In other words, the child must be physically and mentally ready to seek information. Motivation and timely reinforcement promote learning. Individual differences including race, gender, culture and socioeconomic status may affect growth and development process.



Psychological Factors in Development

Self-esteem plays an important role in growth and development of the individual. An individual with high self-esteem in the physical arena is not likely to give up physical activity. It motivates her/him to join and sustain the particular activity. Other factors including self-confidence, self-worth, self-image, emotions, also play a vital role in growth and development.

Early Stages Development

Portents and teaches should work on a programme where stimulation and deprivation are given systematically. While the more stimulation and opportunities a child is provided in order to develop both gross and fine motor skills, the faster her/his capacity increases. For instance, if a child is encouraged to play outside on park equipment or other areas where she/he can climb, run, and play, her/his gross motor skills will develop quickly.



Additionally, fine motor skills develop when children are encouraged to play with their hands, hold and touch smaller items, feed themselves, and draw or colour. Timely immunization also helps to prevent disease from child and would not hinder learning process. However, we must keep in mind the child’s readiness to learn. Now-a-days parents provide stimulation too early like focus on swimming, reading, writing etc. in early stages. This may have an adverse effect on the child’s growth and development.

Personal Factors in Development

Physical characteristics, intelligence, aptitude, height, weight, age, muscle fibres, length of fibres, bone structure, gender, diseases are factors that affect motor development. Taking a balanced diet or proper proportion of nutrition in food is required to promote motor development. Malnutrition leads to disease, low immunity, and adversely affects the child’s health and motor development.

Starvation, overeating, eating disorders negatively affect motor development leading to obesity, diabetes, heart disease etc. Good fitness level leads to good health, better reflexes and readiness of muscles to do complex movements. To keep body fit, children should be exposed to outdoor activities also. These activities should be planned in such way that there is focus on muscular aspect of movement for gross and fine motor skills development.