NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 4 Landscape of the Soul by Nathalie Trouveroy and poem the Voice of the Rain by Walt Whitman for session 2022-23. Students of class 11 English can get here extra questions in chapter 4 during the exams.

Understanding the Text

Contrast the Chinese view of art with the European view with examples.
Chinese painting is traditionally more stylized, more abstract and less realistic than Western types. It also emphasizes the importance of white space and may be said to favour landscape painting over portrait art, or figure painting. E.g. The Chinese paintings of Wu Daozi had spiritual inner meanings.
European paintings lay emphasis on a true representation of the physical appearance of the subject. They believe in creation of actual landscape. E.g. A blacksmith Quinten Metsys in order to marry the daughter of a painter represent the exact form of subject to impress her father and finally got succeeded.

Explain the concept of shanshui.
Chinese painters feel that only paintings with mountain and water images that follow specific conventions of form, style and function should be called “shanshui painting”. When Chinese painters work on shanshui painting, they do not try to present an image of what they have seen in the nature, but what they have thought about nature. They do not care whether the painted colors and shapes look like the real object or not.

What do you understand by the terms ‘outsider art’ and ‘art brut’ or ‘raw art’?

‘Outsider art’: It refers to art created by someone without any professional education to be an artist.
‘Art brut’ or ‘raw art’: Art brut or Raw Art designates a category of works made by people ignoring any and all artistic and aesthetic references, or refusing quite simply to submit to standards. The term was employed for the first time in 1945 by Jean Dubuffet, who was particularly interested in the primitive character of artistic creations.

Who was the “untutored genius who created a paradise” and what is the nature of his contribution to art?
Nek Chand Saini is the “untutored genius who created a paradise”. He is known for transforming trash and debris into the Rock Garden of Chandigarh. Through his creation, Nek Chand represents what is called ‘outside art’. This art is described as art of those who have ‘no right’ to be called as artists. This is because he has received no formal training, yet he shows talent and artistic insights through his work.

The Emperor may rule over the territory he has acquired, but only the artist knows the way within. Discuss.

From this line the author wants to say that no matter how powerful or great a king may be in his kingdom, but he can never understand an artist or his creativity. An emperor can conquer any kingdom by his good rule but he can never find that gray matter in artist’s brain. All great artists have a deep desire to grow and an understanding that there isn’t ever really a ‘finish line’ when it comes to art.

Why is the landscape an inner one, a spiritual and conceptual space?
The landscape here is referred as the Shanshui, the Chinese painting which represents mountain water. The artist here refers to Mountain (Yang) and Water (Yin) together. Mountain stands vertically which refers to its connection to heaven as it can serve to be the staircase to heaven whereas the water flows horizontal on earth. Therefore, through Shanshui an artist depicts the natural landscape of earth and heaven which has deeper meanings of spiritual and conceptual space.

Find out the correlates of Yin and Yang in other cultures.

India and China are the two of oldest, culturally rich and continuous civilizations of the world. Both of these civilizations have given many wonders to the world. In ancient times, both civilizations had a continuous flow of information between them and have shared many things including history, religions, ideas, faiths and cultural practices. It is of little wonder then that many beliefs, practices and cultural ideas migrated from India to China. Yin and Yang are fundamentally an important part of Chinese philosophy of two polarities in Creation – the positive and negative; male and female.

Yin and Yang are the two halves that together complete and complement each other. It defines the nature of change, balanced as two halves of a whole. Since there is no element to represent creative energy this is expressed by the term Yin-Yang, or Black and White in lieu of male-female of Indian cosmology. The organs of reproduction have been projected as the opposites that generate creative energy. It is very likely that this concept was initially adopted into Chinese philosophy and later became deeply integrated into their civilization.

Find out about as many Indian schools of painting as you can. Write a short note on the distinctive features of each school.

Pala School of Miniature Painting: The Pala painting is characterized by sinuous line and subdued tones of color. It is a naturalistic style which resembles the ideal forms of contemporary bronze and stone sculpture, and reflects some feeling of the classical art of Ajanta.
Jaina School of Miniature Painting: Jainism influenced the rise of miniature paintings in western India from the 12th to the 16th century AD. The Jaina paintings depicted stories from religious texts like ‘Kalpa Sutra’ and ‘Kalkacharya Katha’ and prevailed in regions of Malwa, Rajasthan and Gujarat. Strong and vibrant colors of inks and dyes were used.

Pahari School of Miniature Painting: It’s a style of miniature painting and book illustration that developed in the independent states of the Himalayan foothills in India. The style is made up of two markedly contrasting schools, the bold intense Basohli and the delicate and lyrical Kangra. Its main features are use of strong and contrasting colors, monochrome background, large eyes, bold drawing, use of beetles wings for showing diamonds in ornaments, narrow sky and the red border are observable in this miniature also.
Mughal School of Miniature Painting: The Mughal School of Miniature Painting is known for its sophisticated aesthetics that developed in the northern region of the Indian subcontinent. From the 16th to the mid-19th century, this school of Indian Art includes calligraphy, book marking, book illustrations apart from miniature paintings.

Find out about experiments in recycling that help in environmental conservation.

There are various experiments in recycling that help in environmental conservation. These are: –
For the last few years, good progress is being seen in making roads from plastic. Besides improving environment sustainability, roads made by Plastics are found more durable and cost-effective. Plastic and bitumen bond well together because both are petroleum products. This combination enhances the road’s ability to carry weight, as well as its life.

Bamboo, which is actually a grass, is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to wood, particularly for flooring and furniture. It is highly renewable as it grows quickly, so this aspect appeals to eco-conscious homeowners.
Much of that plastic waste can be used as fuel in the manufacturing of cement, which involves heating limestone in large furnaces at temperatures of 1,450 degrees Celsius until it liquefies. The fuel widely used is coal, of which cement factories burn half a billion tons every year around the planet.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 4 Question Answers
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Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 4 Poem the Voice of the rain