Class 11 Physical Education Chapter 10 Training and Doping in Sports
NCERT Class 11 Physical Education Chapter 10 Training and Doping in Sports in Hindi and English Medium Notes free to download in PDF for CBSE session 2021-2022. NCERT book, study material, notes, important questions, short and long questions for terminal exams are given here in PDF file format.
In class 11 Physical Education chapter 10, we have to study about Meaning and Concept of Sports Training, Principles of Sports Training, Warming up & Limbering Down, Skill, Technique and Style, Concept and Classification of Doping, Prohibited Substances and their Side Effects and Dealing with alcohol and Substance Abuse.
Class 11 Physical Education Chapter 10 Question Answers
PRINCIPLES OF SPORTS TRAINING
Sports training These principles facilitate a trainer in successfully employing an efficient training Program.
- Principle of Continuity: Sports training is a regular phenomenon that should be done consistently, without irregular breaks. Though, it is a continuous process.
- Principle of Individual Differences: Every individual is different. Each one possesses different qualities and capabilities, and responds differently to exercise and training.
WHAT IS WARMINING UP
Warming up includes a set of physical activities or exercises performed prior to any sports competition, game or training through which an athlete prepares his/her muscles to move efficiently. These exercises also enable the nerve impulses of the person respond quickly and effectively. while warming up are of low intensity with little repetition of specific exercises. It prepares the athlete physically, physiologically and psychologically before indulging in sports activity reducing the possibility of error and injury during the main sport or competition.
Warming Up includes the following types:
- 1. Passive Warming Up: Passive Warming Up helps increase body temperature before the competition or training without performing any physical activity. This involves drinking warm water, hot beverages (tea, coffee, etc.), taking as team bath.
- 2. Active Warming Up: Active Warming Up involves increasing the body temperature by performing different low intensity, repetitive exercises. These exercises or activities increase muscle efficiency and reduce risk of injuries. Although the intensity, repetition of exercises, and duration of warm up depends on individual difference, it is advisable to perform the activities for 10 to 30 minutes.
METHODS OF WARMING UP
These exercises must be done at slow pace and low intensity to prevent fatigue or overload before the competition or sports event. This is the best
- (i) Jogging is generally done at slow pace for 5 to 10 minutes to increase the body temperature.
- (ii) Striding is best before events requiring explosive effort. The athlete may run around 30 to 40 meters at sub maximum intensity at least 3-4 times with proper rest in between.
- (iii) Wind Sprints are sprinting exercises performed for short distance with spikes on as the athlete moves from a walk or slow run to a faster run and repeatedly reverses. Hot bath therapy is usually very common in sports in cold countries. It can be performed before and after the task. A hot bath before the event may improve.
What is DOPING?
Doping in sports is not a new phenomenon; it goes as far back as the first Olympic Games in ancient Olympia. Historians have written about use of performance-enhancing substances. There were experts who offered nutritional components to athletes in order to provide them an advantage over their competitors. Athletes in those times took herbal infusions to increase their muscle mass etc.
Increasing performance by taking mushrooms and opium was also a very common method in those days. In 100AD Roman gladiators used stimulants and hallucinogens to delay fatigue and to prevent injuries. Similarly, in modern times athletes use various techniques to get a winning edge over their competitors. In the late 19thcentury, French cyclists and lacrosse players took wine and coca leaves – source of cocaine and related alkaloids, to counter fatigue.