NCERT Class 11 Physical Education Chapter 8 Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology and Kinesiology in Sports in Hindi Medium and English Medium free to download in PDF for session 2023-24. Now chapters are divided into two terms – first term and second term by CBSE. So, please check the chapters carefully before preparation.
In class 11 Physical Education chapter 8, we will learn about Definition, value and benefits of Anatomy, Physiology as well as Kinesiology, Working of Skeletal System, Different kinds of Bones and Types Joints, Properties and Functions of Muscles, Structure and Functions of Respiratory System and Circulatory System and Equilibrium: Dynamic and Static and Centre of Gravity and its application in Sports.
Class 11 Physical Education Chapter 8 Question Answers
What is KINESIOLOGY?
Have you ever wondered what makes a physical activity as simple and routine as walking possible? The study of these bodily movements is called Kinesiology. The term Kinesiology is derived from the Greek word kinesis which means movement or motion and logio, or the study of. Thus, Kinesiology is the scientific study of human or non-human body movement.
The dictionary defines Kinesiology as “the science dealing with the interrelationship of the physiological processes and anatomy of the human body with respect to movement.” It is an analysis of human motion based upon scientific principles, bio- mechanics, muscular system an atomy and neuro muscular physiology.
What is SKELETAL SYSTEM?
The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body. It is composed of around 270 bones at birth.
Main parts of human skeleton:
Axial skeleton – consists of the vertebral column, the rib cage, the skull and other associated bones. Appendicular skeleton – is attached to the axial skeleton. The functions of the skeleton include:
- This skeletal system provides shape and support to the body.
- It allows the body to create movement by forming the frame work of the body, to which the muscles are attached. Movement occurs when muscles contract and pull on bones making them create movement in the joint.
- Internal organs of the body like heart, lungs, liver, brain etc. are soft and delicate. The skeleton protects these organs.
- The hard substance of the bones also serves as a store house of minerals.
PROPERTIES AND FUNCTIONS OF MUSCLES
Every movement from heartbeat to completing a marathon takes place due to contraction of the muscles. There are basically three types of muscle tissue.
Skeletal Muscles–Skeletal muscles comprise 40% of the body weight. They are named so because they are attached to the skeletal system. They are also called striated muscles as their striations can be seen when observed under the microscope. They are also known as voluntary muscles as they are under conscious control of the brain. They can contract very rapidly.
FUNCTIONS OF MUSCLES
- 1. Movement: Muscles give rigidity to our body. Skeletal muscles can yank and pull on the bones in the skeleton, resulting in body movements such as walking, chewing, running, lifting and manipulating objects with our hands.
- 2. Maintenance of posture: Muscles generate a constant contractile force that allows us to maintain an erect position or posture, without much conscious control.
- 3. Respiration: Our muscular system automatically drives movement of air into and out of our body.
- 4. Constriction of organs and blood vessels: Nutrients move through our digestive tract, urine is passed out of the body, and secretions are propelled out of glands by contraction of smooth muscles.
- 5. Pumping blood: Blood moves through the blood vessels because our heart tirelessly receives blood and delivers it to all body tissue and organs.