NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 10

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Subject:Social Science (History)
Chapter 10:The Changing World of Visual Arts

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 10

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The Changing World of Visual Arts: Question Answers

8 History Chapter 10 The Changing World of Visual Arts Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 10 The Changing World of Visual Arts
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Important Notes on The Changing World of Visual Arts
Forms of Imperial Art

From the eighteenth century a stream of European artists came to India along with the British traders and rulers. They began producing pictures which became widely popular in Europe and helped shape Western perceptions of India. The artists brought with them new styles and new conventions of painting. European artists brought with them the idea of realism. What the artist produced was expected to look real and lifelike. European artists also brought with them the technique of oil painting – a technique with which Indian artists were not very familiar. Oil painting enabled artists to produce images that looked real. Not all European artists in India were inspired by the same things.

The Picturesque

One popular imperial tradition was that of picturesque landscape painting. This style of painting depicted India as a quaint land, to be explored by travelling British artists like its landscape was rugged and wild, seemingly untamed by human hands. Thomas Daniell and his nephew William Daniell came to India in 1785 and stayed for seven years, journeying from Calcutta to northern and southern India. They produced some of the most evocative picturesque landscapes of Britain’s newly conquered territories in India.

Portrait Painting

The rich and the powerful, both British and Indian, wanted to see themselves on canvas. This made another tradition of art popular in colonial India, the portrait painting. Unlike the existing Indian tradition of painting portraits in miniature, colonial portraits were life-size images that looked lifelike and real. The size of the paintings itself projected the importance of the patrons who commissioned these portraits. This new style of portraiture also served as an ideal means of displaying the lavish lifestyles, wealth and status that the empire generated.

History Painting

There was a third category of imperial art, called “history painting”. British victories in India served as rich material for history painters in Britain. These painters drew on first hand sketches and accounts of travellers to depict for the British public a favourable image of British actions in India. These paintings once again celebrated the British as their power, their victories, their supremacy.

Point out which of the following were brought in with British art: (a) oil painting (b) miniatures (c) life-size portrait painting (d) use of perspective (e) mural art

(a) Oil painting, (c) life-size portrait painting and (d) use of perspective were brought in with British art.

Why did the scroll painters and potters come to Kalighat? Why did they begin to paint new themes?

The city of Calcutta was emerging as an administrative and commercial centre. It promised opportunities and bright future. The scroll painters and potters came to Kalighat in the hope of finding new patrons and buyers. They closely observed the changes in the society around them and began to paint new themes.

Why can we think of Raja Ravi Varma’s paintings as national?

Raja Ravi Varma painted from Indian mythology. The characters from these mythologies had a pan-India appeal. Hence, Ravi Varma’s paintings can be seen as national.

In what way did the British history paintings in India reflect the attitudes of imperial conquerors?

Imperial history paintings were an attempt to create a public memory of imperial triumphs. Victory was a thing which should be implanted in public memory; both Indian and British. Such paintings were used as tools to showcase the British as invincible and all powerful. The scenes were highly dramatized in such paintings and British soldiers were shown as destroying everything which represented India.

Why do you think some artists wanted to develop a national style of art?

Some artists thought that Ravi Varma’s style of imitative of the west. They wanted to develop a style which could truly capture the essence of the East. They wanted to use the traditional painting styles from India. Hence, they wanted to develop a national style of art.

Why did some artists produce cheap popular prints? What influence would such prints have had on the minds of people who looked at them?

Some artists wanted their depiction of certain themes to reach the wider public. Hence, they wanted to produce cheap popular prints. Such prints must have helped in spreading certain ideas among the masses.
For example: The paintings depicting the Bharat Mata must have helped in instilling a sense of nationhood among the Indians.