NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 12

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 12 India after Independence (स्वतंत्रता के बाद) to Study online or download in PDF form free . Download NCERT Solutions for other subjects also. Discuss your doubts in Discussion Forum and get the answers from experts.


Class:8
Subject:Social Science (History)
Chapter 12:India after Independence

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 12

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India after Independence: Question Answers




8 History Chapter 12 India after Independence Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 12 India after Independence
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Important Notes on India after Independence
A New and Divided Nation

When India became independent in August 1947, it faced a series of very great challenges. As a result of Partition, 8 million refugees had come into the country from Pakistan. These people had to be found homes and jobs. The problems of the refugees and of the princely states had to be addressed immediately. In the longer term, the new nation had to adopt a political system that would best serve the hopes and expectations of its population.

A Written Constitution





Between December 1946 and November 1949, some three hundred Indians had a series of meetings on the country’s political future. The meetings of this “Constituent Assembly” were held in New Delhi, but the participants came from all over India and from different political parties. These discussions resulted in the framing of the Indian Constitution, which was adopted on 26 January 1950. This was a revolutionary step – for never before had Indians been allowed to choose their own leaders. In other countries, such as the United Kingdom. One feature of the Constitution was its adoption of universal adult franchise. All Indians above the age of 21 would be allowed to vote in state and national elections.


Formation of States

After independence the Congress did not take any steps to honour this promise. For India had been divided on the basis of religion: despite the wishes and efforts of Mahatma Gandhi, freedom had come not to one nation but to two. As a result of the partition of India, more than a million people had been killed in riots between Hindus and Muslims. Both Prime Minister Nehru and Deputy Prime Minister Vallabhbhai Patel were against the creation of linguistic states. After the creation of Andhra, other linguistic communities also demanded their own separate states. A States Reorganisation Commission was set up, which submitted its report in 1956, recommending the redrawing of district and provincial boundaries to form compact provinces of Assamese, Bengali, Oriya, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Telugu speakers respectively. The large Hindi-speaking region of north India was broken up into several states. A little later, in 1960, the bilingual state of Bombay was divided into separate states for Marathi and Gujarati speakers.

Name three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced.

The three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced are as follows:
Rehabilitation of a large number of refugees.
Assimilation of princely states.
Ensuring the unity of a country which is full of diversity.

What was the role of the Planning Commission?

The Planning Commission was to formulate policies which would guide the economic development. Productivity and employment opportunities were to be increased through proper implementation of those policies.

State whether true or false: At independence, the majority of Indians lived in villages.

At independence, the majority of Indians lived in villages.

True

What did Dr Ambedkar mean when he said that “In politics we will have equality, and in social and economic life we will have inequality”?

By political equality, Dr. Ambedkar meant the universal adult franchise which gave equal rights to all citizens. By socioeconomic inequality, he meant the income disparities among people.

After Independence, why was there a reluctance to divide the country on linguistic lines?

The partition of the country along communal lines changed the mindset of the nationalist leaders. They wanted to prevent further divisions in the country on sectarian lines.

Give one reason why English continued to be used in India after Independence.

Some leaders believed that English should be done away with and Hindi should be promoted as the national language. But this idea was opposed by the leaders from non-Hindi areas. They did not want an imposition on Hindi on the people of those areas. Finally, it was decided that while Hindi would be the ‘official language’; English would be used for communication among various states.

How was the economic development of India visualised in the early decades after Independence?

Removing poverty and building a modern technical and industrial base were important objectives for the new nation. The Planning Commission was set up in 1950 to plan and execute policies for economic development.
The policy makers followed the model of the mixed economy. As per this model, both the State and the private sector had to play important and complementary role in economic development.