NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science

NCERT Solutions for class 8 Social Science – History (Our Pasts – III), Geography (Resources and Development) and Civics (Social and Political Life – III) is given below to use online or download in PDF form free. Download the NCERT Solutions of other subjects also.

Table of Contents

NCERT Solutions for class 8 Social Science

8 History Solutions

NCERT Solutions for class 8 Social Science – History (Our Pasts – III), all the chapters are given below to download or view online.

8 – Geography Solutions

NCERT Solutions for class 8 Social Science – Geography (Resources and Development) is given below to download in PDF form or study online based on latest NCERT Books.

8 – Civics Solutions

NCERT Solutions for class 8 Social Science – Civics (Social and Political Life – III)  Unit -1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are given below.

Civics (Social and Political Life – III)

8 Social Science solutions in English Medium is available to download. Hindi Medium solutions will be uploaded very soon for the new academic session 2019-20.

Table of Contents

Why did the British preserve official documents?

Official records of the British administration serve as important source of history of this period. The British rulers believed that every instruction, plan, policy, decision, agreement, investigation should be clearly written up. This was necessary for proper study and debate about an issue. Hence, they carefully preserved all official records and created several archives for the purpose.

What attracted European trading companies to India?

Indian cotton and silk was in great demand in Europe. Indian spices were also in great demand. Goods could be bought at cheaper rates from India and could be sold at higher rates in Europe. This prospect attracted the European trading companies to India.

Describe the main features of the Permanent Settlement.

According to the Permanent, the rajas and taluqdars were recognized as zamindars and were given the responsibility of revenue collection from the peasants. The amount to be paid was fixed permanently and hence the name Permanent Settlement.

What problems did shifting cultivators face under British rule?

The shifting cultivators were forced to take up settled cultivation. But type of land and shortage of water meant they could not produce enough. Many of them had to move on to other areas in search of work when access to the forest was restricted.

What objections did the sepoys have to the new cartridges that they were asked to use?

It was rumored that the new cartridges were coated with the fat of cows and pigs. This hurt the sentiments of both the Hindus and the Muslims.

What is sustainable development?

Balancing the need to use resources wisely and also conserve them for the future is called sustainable development.

Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital?

After the 1857 revolt, the British understood the symbolic importance of Delhi for the Indians. Hence, they choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital.

What is bandanna?

A printed scarf for neck or head is called bandanna.

Why did James Mill and Thomas Macaulay think that European education was essential in India?

They thought that education should be useful and practical. They felt that Indians should be made familiar with the advances being made by the West. They thought that the Indians were uncivilized and needed to be civilized. This could be done only through English education.

How did Jyotirao the reformers justify their criticism of caste inequality in society?

He attacked the Brahmans’ claim to superiority. He argued that the Aryans were foreigners who subjugated the true children of the country. He said that the upper caste had no right to land and power and the land belonged to the low caste people who were the original inhabitants of the land in the peninsula. Many other social reformers used the same logic to promote caste equality.

Why did the scroll painters and potters come to Kalighat? Why did they begin to paint new themes?

The city of Calcutta was emerging as an administrative and commercial centre. It promised opportunities and bright future. The scroll painters and potters came to Kalighat in the hope of finding new patrons and buyers. They closely observed the changes in the society around them and began to paint new themes.

Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?

Mahatma Gandhi and other nationalist leaders argued that salt was an essential item of our food and hence it was wrong to impose a tax on salt. Moreover, the issue of salt affected all; the rich and poor; alike. Hence, Gandhiji choose to break the salt law.

What did Dr Ambedkar mean when he said that “In politics we will have equality, and in social and economic life we will have inequality”?

By political equality, Dr. Ambedkar meant the universal adult franchise which gave equal rights to all citizens. By socioeconomic inequality, he meant the income disparities among people.

State whether the given statement is true of false. If true, write the reasons. Water availability per person in India is declining.

Reason: Due to increase in population the demand of water and deforestation also increases which reduces the fresh water reserves (like rivers and ground water). So, the availability of water is being declining.

Why are most industries concentrated around coal mines?

Coal is used as main source of energy in most of the industries that is why the most industries are concentrated around coal mines saving the cost of transportation of coal.

Why are different crops grown in different regions?

Different crops are grown in different regions because the favorable topography of soil and climate condition varies greatly in different regions. Also the type of crops depends upon the geographical conditions, demand of consumers and level of technology.

What are the similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California?

The similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California are as follows:
Availability of skilled man power
Pleasant climate and clean environment
Well-developed and well-connected industries
Connected to marked properly

What is meant by population composition?

Population composition consists of data about number of male – female, population divided in different age group. It also maintain the records about literate – illiterate population and their occupation, health condition, level of income, etc.

Identify the minority with reason: In a school with 30 teachers, 20 of them are male.

Minority – Female teachers
The Female teachers must be allowed to raise their voice so that their teaching efforts must not be hindered.

Look up the annual calendar of holidays of your school. How many of them pertain to different religions? What does this indicate?

Many holidays on a school’s annual calendar pertain to different religions. This indicates that India is a secular country where religious freedom is granted to its citizens and all religions are equally respected.

When is Lok Sabha elected?

The Lok Sabha is usually elected once every five years.

Re-read the storyboard on how a new law on domestic violence got passed. Describe in your own words the different ways in which women’s groups worked to make this happen.

Women’s groups worked hard and untiringly towards the passing of the new law on domestic violence in India. They used different forums like public protests, hearings, meetings with other organizations, press conferences and petitions to the government to introduce a new reformed bill on domestic violence to include demands like monetary relief and protection against being evicted from the shared household. While earlier, domestic violence only entailed “injury or harm or threat of injury or harm” by an adult male against a woman. The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 extended to include physical, economic, sexual, verbal and emotional abuse.

Why do you think the introduction of Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the 1980s is a significant step in ensuring access to justice for all?

The Supreme Court in the early 1980s devised a mechanism of Public Interest Litigation or PIL to increase access to justice. It allowed any individual or organisation to file a PIL in the High Court or the Supreme Court on behalf of those whose rights were being violated. The legal process was greatly simplified and even a letter or telegram addressed to the Supreme Court or the High Court could be treated as a PIL. In the early years, PIL was used to secure justice on a large number of issues such as rescuing bonded labourers from inhuman work conditions; and securing the release of-prisoners in Bihar who had been kept in jail even after their punishment terms was complete.

Thus, the introduction of PIL is really a significant step in ensuring access to justice for all.

What do understand about First Information Report (FIR)?

First Information Report (FIR):
It is with the registration of an FIR that the police can begin their investigations into a crime. The law states that it is compulsory for an officer in charge of a police station to register an FIR whenever a person gives information about a cognizable offence. The FIR usually mentions the date, time and place of the offence, details the basic facts of the offence, including a description of the events. If known, the identity of the accused persons and witnesses is also mentioned. The FIR also states the name and address of the complainant. There is a prescribed form in which the police registers an FIR and it is signed by the complainant. The complainant also has a legal right to get a free copy of the FIR from the police.

Imagine that you are watching the Republic Day parade on TV with a friend and she remarks, “Look at these tribals. They look so exotic. And they seem to be dancing all the time”. List three things that you would tell her about the lives of Adivasis in India.

The three things I would tell a friend about the Adivasis in India would be:
‘Adivasis’ is a term literally means ‘orignal inhabitants’. They lived and often continue to live in close association with forests.
Adivasis are not a homogenous population. There are over 500 different Adivasis groups in India.
The Adivasis have their own languages which have influenced “mainstream” languages like Bengali and Santhali, commonly spoken in urban areas.

What does Article 17 of the Constitution states about untouchability?

Article 17 of the Constitution states that untouchability has been abolished – what this means is that no one can henceforth prevent Dalits from educating themselves, entering temples, using public facilities etc. It also means that it is wrong to practise untouchability and that this practice will not be tolerated by a democratic government. In fact, untouchability is a punishable crime now.

Data on some of the public facilities are collected as part of the Census. Discuss with your teacher when and how the Census is conducted.

Census is conducted after every ten years. The last Census was done in 2001. The next Census will be done in 2011.

(a) The Census work is very useful from many angles. This work provide detailed and complete data on some of the public facilities. Looking at these data we can compare the socio-economic status of different people, classes, communities, regions and even of genders.

(b) We can get a clear picture of development of urban as well as of rural areas.

(c) The local, state and central government can plan for future basic facilities, for social and economic justice etc.

Imagine yourself to be a worker working in a chemical factory, which has received orders from the government to move to a different site 100 km away from the present location. Write about how your life would change? Read out your responses in the classroom.

I will have to adjust in the new environment. I will get admission in a new school where new friends and new teachers will come in contact with me. It may take much time to me to adjust in the new school because I am a little but introvert. I don’t like changes or shifting. This will definitely adversely affect my studies. But as there will be no alternatives, I will have to face the situation.