(a) Headlights of a car use concave mirrors. The concave shape helps in converging light rays from a light source at the focus, projecting a strong beam of light forward.
(b) Side/rear-view mirrors of vehicles use convex mirrors. These mirrors provide a wider field of view and diminish the size of the images, making it easier to view a larger area.
(c) Solar furnaces use parabolic mirrors. These mirrors focus sunlight to a single point, generating high temperatures needed for the furnace.

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Headlights of a Car

Use of Concave Mirrors: In car headlights, concave mirrors are used. These mirrors have a reflective surface that curves inward, resembling a portion of the interior of a sphere. The reason for using concave mirrors lies in their ability to converge light rays. When a light source is placed at the focal point of a concave mirror, it reflects light rays in a parallel beam, enhancing the intensity and directionality of the headlight’s beam.

Side/Rear-View Mirror of a Vehicle

Convex Mirrors for Wider View: The side and rear-view mirrors of vehicles typically utilize convex mirrors. These mirrors curve outward, opposite to the concave mirrors. The advantage of using convex mirrors in this application is their ability to provide a wider field of view. Although they reduce the size of the image, they enable drivers to see a larger area, which is crucial for safety and effective navigation on the road.

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Solar Furnace

Parabolic Mirrors for Concentrating Light: Solar furnaces use parabolic mirrors. These mirrors have a specific shape that is not simply spherical but parabolic. They are designed to focus incoming parallel rays of sunlight to a single focal point. This concentration of light at the focal point generates extremely high temperatures, making parabolic mirrors ideal for solar furnaces where intense heat is required for various industrial processes.

Concave Mirrors in Headlights

Enhancing Light Direction and Intensity: The choice of concave mirrors in car headlights is due to their unique property of converging light rays. By placing the light source at their focal point, concave mirrors direct light in a specific direction, which is essential for effective illumination of the road ahead.

Convex Mirrors in Vehicle Mirrors

Safety through Broadened Perspective: The use of convex mirrors as side and rear-view mirrors in vehicles is primarily for safety reasons. Their ability to provide a panoramic view of the surroundings helps drivers to be aware of other vehicles and obstacles, reducing blind spots and increasing road safety.

Parabolic Mirrors in Solar Furnaces

Efficient Energy Concentration: In solar furnaces, the use of parabolic mirrors is key to achieving the high temperatures necessary for industrial applications. These mirrors efficiently concentrate solar energy into a small area, maximizing the heat and energy required for high-temperature processes.

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Questions of 10th Science Chapter 9 in Detail

Define the principal focus of a concave mirror.
The radius of curvature of a spherical mirror is 20 cm. What is its focal length?
Name a mirror that can give an erect and enlarged image of an object.
Why do we prefer a convex mirror as a rear-view mirror in vehicles?
Find the focal length of a convex mirror whose radius of curvature is 32 cm.
A concave mirror produces three times magnified (enlarged) real image of an object placed at 10 cm in front of it. Where is the image located?
A ray of light travelling in air enters obliquely into water. Does the light ray bend towards the normal or away from the normal? Why?
Light enters from air to glass having refractive index 1.50. What is the speed of light in the glass?
Find out, from Table, the medium having highest optical density. Also find the medium with lowest optical density.
You are given kerosene, turpentine and water. In which of these does the light travel fastest?
The refractive index of diamond is 2.42. What is the meaning of this statement?
Define 1 dioptre of power of a lens.
A convex lens forms a real and inverted image of a needle at a distance of 50 cm from it. Where is the needle placed in front of the convex lens if the image is equal to the size of the object?
Find the power of a concave lens of focal length 2 m.
We wish to obtain an erect image of an object, using a concave mirror of focal length 15 cm. What should be the range of distance of the object from the mirror?
Name the type of mirror used in the following situations. (a) Headlights of a car. (b) Side/rear-view mirror of a vehicle. (c) Solar furnace.
One-half of a convex lens is covered with a black paper. Will this lens produce a complete image of the object?
An object 5 cm in length is held 25 cm away from a converging lens of focal length 10 cm. What is the position, size and the nature of the image formed.
A concave lens of focal length 15 cm forms an image 10 cm from the lens. How far is the object placed from the lens?
An object is placed at a distance of 10 cm from a convex mirror of focal length 15 cm. Find the position and nature of the image.
The magnification produced by a plane mirror is +1. What does this mean?
An object 5.0 cm in length is placed at a distance of 20 cm in front of a convex mirror of radius of curvature 30 cm. Find the position of the image, its nature and size.
An object of size 7.0 cm is placed at 27 cm in front of a concave mirror of focal length 18 cm. At what distance from the mirror should a screen be placed, so that a sharp focussed image can be obtained?
Find the focal length of a lens of power – 2.0 D. What type of lens is this?
A doctor has prescribed a corrective lens of power +1.5 D. Find the focal length of the lens. Is the prescribed lens diverging or converging?