NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes with intext and exercises question answers for session 2022-2023. Class 12 Chemistry unit 10 solutions are given here in Hindi and English Medium format free to access online.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10

Haloalkane Compounds

Haloalkane or alkyl halides are the compounds which have the general formula “RX” where R is an alkyl or substituted alkyl group and X is a halogen (F, Cl, Br, I).
Some Haloalkane compounds are given below with their chemical formula and common name:

Chemical formulaIUPAC NameCommon Name
CH₃—ClChloromethaneMethyl chloride
CH₃—BrBromomethaneMethyl bromide
CH₃—IIodomethaneMethyliodide
F—CH₂—FDifluoromethaneMethylene fluoride

Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 MCQ

Q1

Alkene gives which of the following reactions?

[A]. Addition reaction
[B]. Substitution reaction
[C]. Both [A] and [B]
[D]. None of these
Q2

Which of the following is a primary halide?

[A]. Isopropyl iodide
[B]. Secondary butyl iodide
[C]. Tertiary butyl bromide
[D]. Neohexyl chloride
Q3

Which of the following undergoes nucleophilic substitution exclusively by SN 1 mechanism?

[A]. Benzyl chloride
[B]. Ethyl chloride
[C]. Chlorobenzene
[D]. Isopropyl chloride
Q4

Halogenation of alkenes is

[A]. A reductive process
[B]. An oxidative process
[C]. An isothermal process
[D]. An endothermal process

Haloarenes

Haloarenes are hydrocarbons containing aromatic alkane with one or more hydrogen atom/s replaced by halogens.Examples of haloarenes are chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, iodobenzene, 2-Chlorotoluene etc.

Classification
Haloalkanes and haloarenes may be classified as follows:
1. On the Basis of Number of Halogen Atoms
These may be classified as mono, di, or polyhalogen (tri-, tetra-, etc.) compounds depending on whether they contain one, two or more halogen atoms in their structures C₂H₅X, C₂ H₄ X₂, C₃H₅X₃, etc.
Monohalocompounds may further be classified according to the hybridisation of the carbon atom to which the halogen is bonded, as discussed below.
Compounds Containing sp³ C—X Bond (X= F, Cl, Br, I)

    • (A) Alkyl halides or haloalkanes (R—X)
    • (B) Allylic halides
    • (C) Benzylic halides

12th Chemistry Unit 10 Multiple Choice Questions

Q5

Criteria for purity of organic solid is

[A]. Boiling point
[B]. Melting point
[C]. Specific gravity
[D]. None of these
Q6

How many structural isomers are possible for a compound with molecular formula C₃H₇Cl?

[A]. 2
[B]. 5
[C]. 7
[D]. 9
Q7

The synthesis of alkyl fluoride is best accomplished by

[A]. Finkelstein reaction
[B]. Swartz reaction
[C]. Free radical fluorination
[D]. Sandmeyers reaction
Q8

Which of the following compounds can yield only one monochlorinafed product upon free radical chlorination?

[A]. 2, 2-Dimethylpropane
[B]. 2-Methylpropane
[C]. 2-Methylbutane
[D]. n-Butane
Compounds Containing sp² C—X Bond

This class includes:
(A) Vinylic halides
(B) Aryl halides
Physical Properties
Alkyl halides are colourless when pure. However, bromides and iodides develop colour when exposed to light. Many volatile halogen compounds have sweet smell.

Melting and boiling points
Methyl chloride, methyl bromide, ethyl chloride and some chlorofluoromethanes are gases at room temperature. Higher members
are liquids or solids. The boiling points of isomeric haloalkanes decrease with increase in branching. For example, 2-bromo-2- methylpropane has the lowest boiling point among the three isomers.

Density and Solubility

Density
Bromo, iodo and polychloro derivatives of hydrocarbons are heavier than water. The density increases with increase in number of carbon atoms, halogen atoms and atomic mass of the halogen atoms.
Solubility
The haloalkanes are very slightly soluble in water. In order to dissolve haloalkane in water, energy is required to overcome the attractions between the haloalkane molecules and break the hydrogen bonds between water molecules.

Chemical Reactions
The reactions of haloalkanes may be divided into the following categories:

    1. Nucleophilic substitution
    2. Elimination reactions
    3. Reaction with metals.

Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Important Questions

Out of chlorobenzene and benzyl chloride, which one gets easily hydrolysed by aqueous NaOH and why?

Benzyl chloride; Due to resonance, stable benzyl carbocation is formed.

Give reasons for the following:

(i) Benzyl chloride is highly reactive towards the SN₁ reaction.
(ii) 2-bromobutane is optically active but 1-bromobutane is optically inactive.
(iii) Electrophilic reactions in haloarenes occur slowly.
Answer:
(i) Benzyl carbonadon is stabilized by resonance.
(ii) 2-Bromobutane is chiral, therefore, optically active, whereas 1 -chlorobutane is not chiral, therefore optically inactive.
(iii) It is due to —I effect of halogens, it deactivates benzene ring towards electrophilic substitution reactions.

What is the difference between alkyl and aryl group?

Aryl group is a simple aromatic compound where one hydrogen atom is removed from the ring, allowing it to get attached to a carbon chain. The main difference between alkyl and aryl is that alkyl group has no aromatic ring whereas aryl group has an aromatic ring.

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