NCERT Solutions for Class 4 EVS Chapter 12 Changing Times in Hindi and English Medium prepared for academic session 2022-2023 based on latest CBSE Syllabus and new NCERT Books. All the questions are explained in quite easy language which is easy to understand for all the students studying in 4th standard. Along with the NCERT Textbook solutions, there are some extra questions which are also important for class test as well as term exams.
NCERT Solutions for Class 4 EVS Chapter 12
Class 4 EVS Chapter 12 Question Answers Set 1
Talk to any one of your grandparents or any other elderly person. Find out, when she or he was eight-nine years old.
I have asked my grandfather some questions as mention below:
Where did she or he live? Name that place.
He lived in a village.
From what material was her or his house made?
His house was made of mud, straw, wood, rope and bamboo sticks.
Did they have a toilet in their house? If no, where was it?
No there was no toilet in their house. They use forest for this purpose.
In which part of the house was food cooked?
They had a separate kitchen to cook food.
A lot of mud was used when Chetandas’ house was made. Why?
Because a thick layer of mud protects the house from cold and heat.
Class 4 EVS Chapter 12 Question Answers Set 2
The people who used the toilets did not clean them. Discuss.
The people who used the toilet did not clean them, because they thought that was a dirty job. Hence, people from basti used to come to clean the toilets and take away the waste.
Is there a toilet in your house? Who cleans it?
Yes, there are toilets in my house. We clean it ourselves.
What material have been used in making your house?
Cement, bricks, sand, iron rods, wood, tiles, etc., have been used in making our house.
Find out the material from which your friend’s house is made? Is there any difference? Write about it.
My friend’s house is made of cement, bricks, sand, iron rods, wood, tiles, etc. Yes, there is one difference that they have marble stone flooring in their house but floor of our house is made of tiles.
What kind of house do you think Chetandas’ grandchildren will live in?
They will live in the skyscrapers made with iron and cement.
Where would you like to live when you grow up? What kind of house would you like?
I would like to live in a city where I can easily get all primary facilities like education, medical and jobs. I would like to live in a big modern house.
Class 4 EVS Chapter 12 Question Answers Set 2
In your place, what do you call a person who works with wood?
person works with wood called Carpenter.
What is being built there?
A large multi-storey building is being built there.
How many people are working there?
About 500 hundred people are working there.
What kind of work are they doing?
Different people are doing different job as, Engineers were supervising the work, masons were pouring the cement on roofs and lintels, some people were carrying the materials from one place to another. Some are operating the cranes and other machines.
How many men and women are there?
There are 400 men and 100 women are working there.
You had written about the things that your grandparent’s house was made of. Has some of those material been used in your house? Name them.
Yes, wood is used in my house as well as in my grandpa’s house.
Class 4 EVS Chapter 12 Question Answers Set 3
Are any children working there? What are they doing?
No, children are not working there.
How much money do these people get paid daily? Ask from any three different people.
Carpenter – Rs 600/-
Mason – Rs 400/-
Helper – Rs 350/-
Crane operator – Rs 700/-
Foreman – Rs 1000/-
Where do these people live?
Some of them live in the tents near the construction place, while some come from their residences.
What are the material being used for making the building?
Cement, sand, iron rods, wood, bricks, concrete, etc., are being used for making the building.
Try and guess how many trucks of bricks and bags of cement will be used for making the building.
About 1200 trucks of bricks and 40,000 bags of cement will be used for making the building.
How does the material reach the building site? (By truck, handcart, any other vehicle) List them.
All materials reach the building site by trucks, tempo, tractor etc.
Find out the price of One bag of cement, One brick, One truck of sand.
Price of the different materials are:
One bag of cement: Rs. 350/-
One brick Rs. 4/-
One truck of sand Rs. 5000/-
Over the sixty years, different materials were used at different times in Chetandas’ house. List these in the correct order.
Different materials used at different time as mention below:
(a) Mud, bamboo, straw, ropes
(b) Wood, nut and bolt, bamboo, iron rods
(c) Cement, sand, iron rods, wood
(d) Cement, sand, iron rods, marbles, tiles.
Class 4 EVS Chapter 12 Extra Question Answers Set 1
Why do we need houses?
We need house to protect ourselves from heat of the Sun, strong wind, rain, wild animals, cold and thieves. They give us shelter from different weather conditions and other dangers.
Where was Chetan Das living sixty years ago?
Chetan Das was nine years old and was living in Dera Gazikhan. Today this place is in Pakistan.
Why did the family have to move from their village over sixty years ago?
At that time, there were a lot of problems all around us. India was under the Britishers and were being exploited. The condition of the country was not good at all. Lots of freedom struggles were going on and India finally got divided into India and Pakistan.
Why was Chetan Das sad?
Chetan Das was sad because one day his hat they had to leave our village and move to another place. He became sad as he would have to leave his house and his village. That was where he had all his friends. All of them, his Baba, Amma, younger brothers and sisters took a train to come somewhere near Delhi.
Name the different people involved in the construction of a house.
The different people involved in the construction of a house are-
a. Mason- he is the person who lays the bricks and tiles
b. Painter is the person who paints the walls, doors etc
c. Carpenter is the person who makes the wooden things like door, furniture etc
d. Plumber is the person who repairs the taps and pipes
e. Electrician is the person who fits the wiring and plugs etc.
f. Builder is the person who gets the houses built
g. Architect is the person who designs the houses
Why are children forced to work at construction sites, factories etc?
Children are forced to work at the construction sites, factories etc due to –
• Cheap and easy availability of labour
What is child labour?
When the children below the age of 14 years are made to do some work that is legally not allowed to be done by them, such type of work is referred to as Child Labour.
Class 4 EVS Chapter 12 Extra Question Answers Set 2
Are these children given proper wages?
No, these children are not given proper wages like the adult labourers. They are paid less than them as the people who keep them on work take advantage of their being young and their needs too. Thus they are often exploited at their workplaces.
Where did Chetan Das and his family get the land?
They got some land in Sohna village to live where they could build their house.
They got some land in Sohna village to live where they could build their house.
To build their house his baba and amma worked hard to make the house. We children also helped. Baba dug the soil, and we quickly filled the pans and passed them on to Amma. Gudiya and Amma mixed husk in it. Baba put up the walls.
What did Amma do to keep the mosquitoes away?
They brought cow dung from nearby houses. His amma mixed it with the mud. She coated the floor with this mixture, just like she used to do in our old house and this would keep the insects away.
What did they do to keep termites away?
They made the roof now. His baba then made a frame by joining strips of wood and fixed it on the four walls. They put the branches of neem and keekar trees on the frame, so that termites would not harm the wood. Amma also put old gunny bags on this and covered them with mud.
Why was there a need to get the house repaired?
Chetan Das’s amma and baba wanted him to get married. So they wanted to repair their house and build one more room. People in cities were using cement to make their houses as it made the houses stronger. So, they also thought that they should also use cement with iron for making the roof of the new room.
Why has child labour been banned?
Child Labour has been banned as-
• It deprives the children of their childhood as they are forced to earn money at such a young age
• It also affects their regularity in attending the school as earning money for their family becomes their first priority.
• It creates an inequality amongst the children as some are getting educated while others are being deprived of that.
Class 4 EVS Chapter 12 Extra Question Answers Set 3
What type of houses were there in earlier times?
The houses made in earlier times were made by locally available material like wood, husk, cow dung, gunny bags etc. The construction was simple four walled house without any fancy work. The flooring was of mud mixed with cow dung which helped in keeping the insects away. Toilets were not built inside the house. It was either outside or people used to go out in the open areas. The kitchen was built in the courtyard with mud chulha to cook food. All used to sit down to eat food.
Write a short note on the houses in the modern times.
The houses made in modern times are made up of bricks, cement, tiles, various stones, glass etc. The houses are either bunglows or high rise buildings with well designed interiors. The houses have fancy flooring with marble chips and every room has an attached toilet with beautifully designed and coloured tiles. Granite and marble slabs with beautiful tiles on the walls and floorings are made in the kitchen with gas stoves which are used for cooking. People sit on the dining tables to eat the food.
How are unbaked bricks useful?
In those days unbaked bricks were also available in the market. People used to make the walls with them. The use of bricks was useful as people did not need to coat the wall every week.
They could do it only once in a year.
What were the changes made in the house when Raju got married?
When Raju got married, there was a need to get the house ready for the new bride. By then, everyone was using baked bricks. They also used them for the walls and put a lintel for the roof. They used marble chips and cement for a strong and fancy floor. In the toilet they put pipes to take away the waste. The kitchen was made bigger. Raju’s wife did not use the clay chulha. She stood in the kitchen while cooking on the gas stove.
Why were the toiletes cleaned by the people living in the Basti?
The toilets were cleaned by the people living in the basti because the people who were using them thought that it was a low profile job, a dirty job which they were not supposed to do. So they didn’t bother to clean them even if they used them and this work was thus done by the basti people.
What did Chetandas see on his way from Sohna to Delhi?
Chetandas saw many big high rise buildings on his way from Sohna to Delhi
What does locally available material mean?
Local materials are the resources or materials that can be found easily in large quantity at a particular location or area at a certain time. It is the materials that can be used to make a finished element. These materials can be in abundant in some area but not available in another.
Class 4 EVS Chapter 12 Extra Question Answers Set 4
Why should every house have a toilet?
A toilet is a basic necessity of every house. Right to sanitation is an essential component of the right to an adequate standard of living. Toilets are essential for the healthy development of people, especially children. So is sanitation which includes facilities and services for safe disposal of human urine and faeces and maintaining hygiene through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.
What does renovation mean?
Renovations is the process of improving a broken, damaged, or outdated structure. Renovations are typically either commercial or residential. Moreover, renovation can refer to making something new, or bringing something back to life.
How are bricks baked?
When the bricks are dried throughout, they were stacked in the ovens called kilns, which are heated by fire. The temperature in the kiln is increased slowly until it reached 1600 degrees to 2000 degrees or higher, depending on the kind of clay used.
What is the importance of locally available material?
The importance of using locally available material is:
• It reduces use of the fossil fuels and thus reduces pollution caused by shipping.
• It supports local businesses
• It saves time and energy for going too far off places to get the material
The author in the chapter is reading the book and not trying to tell us only about the journey because that will make this chapter as the literature but what he is trying to show us the environment around him how fast it changes and how the journey from a house coated from cow dung to big building was fast.
What is the phase in this chapter 12 of EVS class 4 tells us about the environment?
Chapter 12 of class 4 EVS tells us about the story of a boy who is trying to show us how to post divide of the country they started to live outside the country capital saw the developments and everything changed. Their home used to be small and now it became a big place to live in. They started living in their hand build cow dun and mud home and then they developed it into baked bricks and cemented home.
Do you think that unit 12 of EVS 4th class is easy to cover in one day?
I think the chapter is easy to cover in one day as the story of Chetandas and the development with his point of view can be easy to comprehend. The related information about the development information can be found in other sources of information like new paper or online.
Do you think the development and changes shown in unit 12 of class 4 EVS is the only changes that took place till now?
The changes are shown in unit 12 of class 4 EVS are only one aspect of changes that is been shown in the story. We cannot say that is only changes that took place as the story is of development is from Chetandas’s point of view. The view can see and observe endless things that we can say are part of development but that would be our point of view.