Gymnastics in Physical Education

Gymnastics is an attractive, fascinating and popular sport. The word ‘Gymnastics’ is derived from the Greek Word Gymnus, which means ‘Naked body’. The exercises performed by hunk body is called gymnastics.

These exercises used to be done for the health of the body.

History of Gymnastics

Gymnastics is an ancient and basic sport. Johann Guts Muths (1759-1839) who is known as the great grandfather of Gymnastics, introduced it into the Persian schools. It can be said that Germany rediscovered Gymnastic and owing to that the International Gymnastic Federation was formed in 1881. The first competition of gymnastics was held in Germany in 1884. It was included for men in the first modern Olympic Games which were held in Athens in 1896. Gymnastics for women was included in the Olympic Games in 1928. It was included in Asian Games in 1974 in Teheran Asian Games. The first World Cup of Gymnastics was introduced in 1975.

Measurements and specification of equipments

A. Equipments for men
EquipmentMeasurement
Floor12 m × 12 m
Parallel Bars
EquipmentMeasurement
Length of bars3500 mm
Width of bars420-520 mm
Height of the bar1750 mm
Horizontal Bar
EquipmentMeasurement
Diameter of bar28 mm
Length of bar2400 mm
Height of the bar2550 to 2700 mm
Diameter of uprights54 – 60 mm
Diameter of tension wire5–6 mm
Vaulting Horse
EquipmentMeasurement
Height of vaulting horse1350mm
Adjustable steps in the intervals50 mm
Length1600 mm
Roman Rings
EquipmentMeasurement
Diameter (grip)28 mm
Height of stand from floor5500 mm
Length of leather straps700 mm
Thickness4 mm
Inside diameter of ring180 mm
Height of the ring from floor2500 mm
Width35 mm
Pommel Horse
EquipmentMeasurement
Length of Pommel Horse1600 mm
Width of Pommel Horse350 mm
Height from the floor1100 mm
Height of Pommel120 mm
Distance between Pommels400-450 mm
Equipments for women
EquipmentMeasurement
Floor12 m × 12 m
Vaulting horse
EquipmentMeasurement
Height of Vaulting horse1250 mm
Adjustable steps in the intervals100-150 mm
Length1600 mm
Balancing Beam
EquipmentMeasurement
Length of beam5000 mm
Width of beam100 mm
Height of beam1200 mm
Adjustable steps700 – 1200 mm
Uneven Bars
Height of the bars from floor2300 mm and 1500 mm
Length of uneven bars2400 mm
Distance between bars580-900 mm
Diameter of uprights50-60 mm
Thickness of uprights30 mm

General Rules

1. Gymnasts present themselves to a judge before and after the event. They start their exercise when the signal is given to them. If during the exercise, they fall, they have 30 seconds to remount and continue.
2. Gymnasts are not allowed to leave the arena during competition without permission.
3. Women compete in four artistic events i.e. vaulting horse, uneven bars, balancing beam and floor exercises. Men compete in six artistic events i.e. floor exercises, vaulting horse, pommel horse, roman rings, horizontal bars and parallel bars.
4. In team competition 6 gymnasts of each team perform a compulsory and an optional exercise on each apparatus. Five highest scores are added to get the team total.
5. A gymnast must wear proper attire. He may wear bandages and slippers or socks. He/she must begin the exercise within 30 seconds once he/she is given signal. On the horizontal bar and roman rings, a coach or another gymnast may assist a gymnast into a hanging position.
6. Breakdown of points are given below:

Breakdown of pointsMenWomen
Difficulty3.403.00
Combination1.602.50
Risk originality & virtuality0.60___
Execution & virtuality4.404.00
Bonus point___0.50
Total1010

Terminology

Apparatus, Beam, Flank, Front, Horizontal Bar, Mount, Spring Board, Mat, Parallel Bars, Vault, Turn Circle, Pommel etc.

Important Tournaments

1. National Championship
2. Federation Cup
3. All India Inter University
4. School National
5. National Games
6. Asian Games
7. Olympic Games
8. China Cup

Sports Awards

Arjuna Awardees
yearPersonality
1961Sham Lal
1975 Montu Debnath
1985Sunita Sharma
1989Kripali Patel
2001Kalpana Debnath
2011Ashish Kumar

International Players

(1) Nelli Kim
(2) Karin Jaz
(3) Olga Korbut
(4) Dov Lupi
(5) Elvira Saadi
(6) Nadia Comaneci