Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Important Questions of Management of Natural Resources. It contains all the important questions as well as expected questions for the board exams taken from NCERT Textbook. Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Extra Questions contains all long and short questions with answers and explanations. Very short answer questions, short answer questions and long answer questions are given with suitable answers. These questions are useful for the examination point of view. UP boar students are also using NCERT textbooks, so these important extra questions are useful for UP Board High School students also. After preparing 10th Science chapter 16 from NCERT, important expected questions help in complete revision of the chapter for school tests and terminal exams. If some one is facing problem to access the contents of Tiwari Academy Website or Apps, please contact us for help. We will try to resolve the problem as soon as possible.

Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Important Questions 2022-23

Class: 10Science
Chapter: 16Important Questions with Answers

Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Important Questions for Exams

Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Important Questions with answers are given below. These sets of important contains the class 10 Science Chapter 16 all extra questions with answers which are helpful for the preparation of Board Examination. UP Board Students also take the benefits of these questions for there school exams or final exams.

10th Science Chapter 16 Important Questions Set – 1

What are natural resources?

Natural resources are naturally occurring substance that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified form. These are raw materials obtained or derived from nature. Our major natural resources are forest, wetlands, mangroves, minerals, wildlife, etc. Natural resources can be of two types: (i) Renewable (example forest, trees, wildlife, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy) and (ii) Non-Renewable can reproduce themselves in nature and we can harvest them continuously through a sustained proper planning and management. Non-renewable resources are mainly physical resources are mainly physical resources which are mainly physical resources which are available in nature only in limited amounts and cannot be reproduced.

What is meant by sustainable development of natural resources?

Sustainable developments is the use of components of biological diversity in a way that does not interfere with the natural functioning of ecological processes and benefits the present generation while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspiration of the future generation. For sustainable development conservation and management of the natural resources is very necessary.

What is Ganga action plan?

River Ganga has become polluted due to sewage, industrial, waste etc., flowing into the river untreated. People also dumb human corpses and other material into the river which increases the pollution. Ganga Action Plan come about in 1985. It is a project to clean the Ganga river. It aims to install sewage treatment plants for 27 cities at the bank of the river to handle millions of liter of sewage daily before its discharge into the river.

How is pollution defined? What are pollutants?

Pollution is an undesirable change in physical, chemical or biological characteristic of air, water and soil that may harmfully affect the life or create a potential hazard for any living organism. Pollutants which cause pollution.

How can water pollution be measured?

Water pollution can be measured by simple factors like pH level. Biological Oxygen Demand is also a measure of water pollution. Biological Oxygen Demand is the amount of oxygen required for biological oxidation by microbes in any unit volume of water.

10th Science Chapter 16 Important Questions Set – 2

What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutants?

Biodegradable Pollutants are those pollutants which can be decomposed by microbes over a period of time. The biodegradable substance became pollutants when they are present in large quantities and are not degraded at right time due to any reason. Non-biodegradable substances are those which microbes present in nature are not able to breakdown into simpler forms. These remain in the environment for a very long period.

How our holy river Ganga is getting polluted? What is its ill effect? What is being done to prevent its polluted?

Ganga is getting polluted by releasing sewage and harmful chemicals and dumping of human corpses. The bathing, washing, also cause pollution. The industries contribute their chemical in river ganga.
The pollution makes water toxic which is very harmful for health. Ganga Action Plan in 1985 is started to prevent pollution.

What are the three R’s to save the environment?

The three R’s are: Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.
Reduce: This mean that you use less. Save electricity by switching off unnecessary lights and fans. Save water by repairing leaking taps. No waste of food. Use less of your personal vehicle. Use a vehicle that gives more kilometer per liter of fuel. Use less of paper in office, school and home.
Recycle: This means that you collect plastic, paper, glass and metal items and recycle these materials to make required things instead of synthesizing fresh plastic, paper glass, or metal. For this the waste must be separated and what can be recycled should be separated from what cannot be. We have seen recycled paper of getting cards in card shop. Even wedding invitation cards are now available on recycled paper used water can be recycled.
Reuse: This is even better than recycling because it saves the energy which is spent at recycling a product. Things are used over again. For example, envelops can be reused by reversing them. Plastic and glass bottle in which packed item come can be reused to store many materials in kitchen. We can reuse the water in which we have rinsed our clothes for cleaning the floor of the house. We can use one side printed paper to print on the reverse side. Old newspaper can be used for packing. Magazines and comic books can be given to other people who may find them useful.

With the help of an example show that reuse strategy is better than recycling.

(i) Recycling uses some energy while reuse requires energy not to that amount.
(ii) Only segregated wastes can be recycled.
(iii) Recycling also cause pollution.
For example, reuse of old plastic bottles/plates is far better than recycling them in which requires chemicals and causes water and air pollution.

Every one of us can do something to reduce our consumption of various natural resources. List four activities based on 3-R approach.

We can reduce the consumption of electricity by switching off unnecessary lights and fans. We save water by repairing leaking taps.

By recycling we can obtain fresh plastic or paper from the waste plastic or from the waste paper.

Empty plastic or glass bottles can be reused for keeping/storing things in kitchen.

Question: What is the need to manage our resources?
Answer: The natural resources are not unlimited and due to increasing human population the demand and exploitation of natural resources has increased. The management of natural resources requires a long term perspective so that the natural resources last for the generations to come. The management should also ensure equitable distribution of resources so that all benefit from the development of these resources.

10th Science Chapter 16 Important Questions Set – 3

What is the damage caused to the environment on exploitation of natural resources?

(i) Mining causes pollution because of large amounts of slag which is discarded for every tone of metal extracted. Burning of fossil fuels gives out all kinds of gases in the atmosphere causing air pollution and greenhouse effect.
(ii) Building of dams causes large areas to submerge, deforestation and loss of biodiversity, displacement of farmers and tribes. Various industries release various pollutants into the air, water and soil. Thus the main damage caused to the environment by the use of natural resources is environmental pollution. On the one hand our natural resources are getting depleted and on the other hand, we are polluting the earth’s environment which can regenerate those natural resources to some extent to some extent. It can be said that this is a double blow that we are inflicting on ourselves.

What is greenhouse effect?

Since CO₂ is confined to the troposphere its higher concentration acts as a serious pollutant. With the increase in CO₂ concentration, its thick layer prevents the heat from being re-radiated out from earth’s surface. This thick layer of CO₂ thus functions like a glass panel of greenhouse (or glass windows of a car) allowing the sunlight to enter but preventing the heat from being re-radiated in outer space. This is called the greenhouse effect. This results in heating of the earth’s atmosphere which results in another phenomenon called global warming.

What is meant by global warming?

Due to the greenhouse effect there is heating up of the earth’s atmosphere. CO₂ levels hundred years ago were around 275 ppm which is 350 ppm nowadays and is expected to be 450 ppm by 2040. It is expected that global mean temperature would rise by around 2 C by 2050. This would result in polar ice melting, sea levels rising, submergence of coastal area and islands, global rainfall pattern change, more floods etc. All these are the effects of global warming.

Are forest based industries dependent on a particular forests product?

Industries consider forests as a resource of raw material. If the raw material in one forest is exhausted, they can get the raw material form another forest. Therefore, they do have a major stake in the conservation of forests, although they may be responsible for its unsustainable use.

Should the people living in the forests be considered part of the forest?

We lay stress on conserving biodiversity as a whole but regard the people living in forests as not being part of the forests. These people have learnt to live in the forests and use the resources in a sustainable way as their lifestyle depends upon these forests. These people should be considered as part of the forest system. Many local people Have in their tradition to conserve forests. For example, the Bishnoi community in Rajasthan is known to conserve wildlife with religious zeal. Management of protected areas by keeping the local people out by using force cannot be successful in the long run.

10th Science Chapter 16 Important Questions Set – 4

What was Chipko Andolan? What is its significance?

This was a mass movement that originated in a village Rani in Garhwal in the Himalayas in which the women folk of the village hugged the trees in order to prevent the logging contractor from cutting them down. The communities living near the forests only pluck leaves and lop the branches allowing the resource to replenish over time.

What does “Chipko Movement” refer to? Write its two aims.

“Chipko Movement” or Chipko Andolan refer to “Hug the Trees Movement” in which people clasp the tree trunks to prevent felling the trees. This movement originated from a village called Reni garhwal in Himalayas during the early 1970s.

(i) To stop felling of forest trees and to avoid destruction of them forever.
(ii) To get the forest products yet allowing a natural resource to replenish over time.

Give three examples of people’s participation in the management of forests.

(i) In West Bangal forest officer A.K Benerjee involved villagers in the protection of 1272 hectares of badly degraded Sal forest.
With the active participation of local community, the sal forest of Arabari forest range in Midnapore district underwent a remarkable recovery and in 1983 a previously worthless forest was valued 12.5 crores.
2. Chipko movement started in a small village to protect trees. The woman used to clasp the tree to prevent them cut by labours of the contractors. The chipko movement quickly spread in communities, spread in communities, media and forced the government to take proper steps to conserve forest.
3. Amrita Devi Bishnoi who sacrificed her life along with 363 others for the protection of Khejri trees in Khejrali village near Jodhpur in Rajasthan. The Government of India instituted Amrita Devi Bishnoi for wildlife conservation.

What are natural resources? State two factors that work against an equitable distribution of these resources?

The resources with are provided by nature to satisfy the needs and demands of human being are called natural resources.
Factors working against an equitable distribution of natural resources.
(i) Over exploitation of natural resources by some powerful people.
(ii) Improper management of these resources.

Why we must conserve our forest? Give two causes of deforestation.

Forest must be conserved:
(i) Forest are the sources of various raw materials for our industries.
(ii) They are the habitat of the wildlife which are very important for ecological balance.
Cause of deforestation:
(i) Industrial activities.
(ii) Housing and road formation projects and conservation of big dams.

Four Measures for Conservation of Forest

    • By the afforestation.
    • By preventing deforestation.
    • The local people can manage the forest more efficiently. They should be involved in conservation of forests programme.
    • By checking whether tourism is damaging the forest or not.

10th Science Chapter 16 Important Questions Set – 5

With the help of an example explain, how involvement of local people can lead to efficient management of forest?

In West Bengal forest officer A.K. Banerjee involved people of Arabari forest range in Midnapore district to protect 1272 hectares of sal forest. A remarkable recovery of value worth 12.5crores was made possible by this involvement of local people by 1983.

Mention the steps taken by West Bengal Government to protect badly degraded sal forest.

Steps taken by the West Bengal Government to protect Arabari sal forest range of Midnapore district, especially by forest officer A.K. Benerjee are:
(i) Involvement of villagers in the protection of sal forest.
(ii) For help in protection, villagers were given employment in both silviculture and harvesting operation.
(iii) They were also allowed fuelwood and folder collection on payment of a nominal fee.
With the active and willing participation of the local community, the sal forests of Arabari underwent a remarkable recovery.

(a) “Forest are biodiversity hotspot”. Give reason to justify this statement. (b) State the meaning of “Sustainable Development”.

(a) Forest are biodiversity hotspot because a wide range of species are found there. The range of different life forms includes bacteria, fungi, flowering plants, nematodes, insects, reptiles, mammals etc.
(b) Sustainable Development means to encourage forms of growth that meant current basic human needs, while preserving the resources for the needs of future generation.

Explain with the help of two examples how the participation of local people has led to conservation of forest in the past?

Two examples of local people participations.
(i) Chipko movement started in Reni Village, Garhwal and spreaded in local communities which lead to efficient management of forest.
(ii) A.K. Banerjee forest officer used the local people sal forest in West Bengal.

Explain with the help of two examples how the participation of local people has led to conservation of forest in the past?

Narmada Bachao Andolan (“Save the Narmada Movement”) about raising the height of the Sardar Sarovar Dam on the river Narmada raised three problems in particular.
Out of these two are:
(a) Economic Problems because dams swallow up huge amounts of public money without the generation of properties benefits.
(b) Environmental Problems because there is deforestation at a large scale. This causes the loss of biological diversity and also climatic changes and environmental problems.
(c) Society Problem due to displacement of large number of people.

10th Science Chapter 16 Important Questions Set – 6

What are the advantages of storing water in the ground?

(i) Water does not evaporate when underground.
(ii) Water spreads to recharge wells.
(iii) It also provides moistures for the vegetation to survive during dry periods.
(iv) As the water is not exposed it cannot become breeding ground for mosquitoes.
(v) Ground water is also protected from contamination by humans and animal’s wastes.

List any two measures that you suggest for better management of water.

(i) Building Dams: Large dams can ensure the storage of adequate water not only for irrigation but also for generating electricity.
(ii) Water Harvesting: It is the activity of direct collection of rain water, which can be stored for direct use or can be recharged into the groundwater. Communities use various methods to collect rain water, such as small pits, ponds, lake, small earthen dams etc.

List and explain any two advantages associated with water harvesting community.

Water harvesting techniques are highly local specific and the benefits are also localised.
(i) Water harvesting technique recharge the groundwater level. We draw ground water through pump, tube well, wells, etc.
(ii) Water harvested in lake, pond, nadis help the communities to procure water in most part of the year. It increases production and income of the community.

What are fossil fuels? How are they important for us?

Fossil fuels are coal and petroleum. They are the important and major sources of energy. Petroleum is used for automobiles and electricity generation. Coal is a major source for electricity generation in thermal power plants. The energy from these sources is used for manufacture of large number of goods upon which our lives depend.

What concepts are behind the management of resources like coal and petroleum?

Coal and petroleum are resources which are non-renewable. They will exhaust in due course of time. Coal and petroleum have been formed of bio-mass degradation millions of years ago. Therefore, they have carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur. When these are burnt, the products are carbon dioxide, water, oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulphur. All of these are pollutants of the atmosphere. More use of fossil fuels causes more and more release of these pollutants. Thus management of fossil fuels is to be seen from the environmental and economic angle.

Reasons for Building Large Dams

We need to build large dams for the following reasons:

    1. Storage of usable water of rivers for continuous supply of water throughout the year.
    2. To make water available for generating electricity.
    3. To control floods.
    4. For irrigation canal system leading from these dams to carry large amount of water to great distances.

10th Science Chapter 16 Important Questions Set – 7

List any four methods of conserving fossil fuels?

(i) Use more and more renewable fuel.
(ii) Use CNG more in place of petrol.
(iii) Avoid wastage of oil and fossil fuels by using more efficient internal combustion engines.
(iv) Protect the fossil fuels from accidental fires.

How has the use of fossils fuels led to deterioration of environment? State any two reasons.

(i) Fossils fuels release CO₂, SO₂, CO and other poisonous gases on burning causing pollution.
(ii) CO₂ is a green house gas which causes global warming and imbalance the environment.

(a) How does formation of coal and petroleum occur? (b) Name any two elements present in fossil fuels in addition to carbon.

(a) Coal and petroleum are formed from the decomposition of dead plants and animals buried millions of year ago.
(b) CO₂, water, SO₂, CO, oxide of nitrogen and etc.

How can we as an individual help in reducing the use of fossil fuels? Mention two ways.

(i) By walking or using cycle in place of car where possible.
(ii) By saving electricity.

(a) Why are coal and petroleum called fossil fuels? (b) Name any two elements present in fossil fuels in addition to carbon.

(a) Coal and petroleum are formed from thee remain of dead organism. So they called fossil fuels.
(b) Nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphur.

10th Science Chapter 16 Important Questions Set – 8

We should use coal and petroleum judiciously. Why? State any four reasons.

(i) Coal and petroleum are limited.
(ii) They produce pollution on burning.
(iii) They produce CO2 which is a greenhouse gas and cause global warming.
(iv) Oxides of nitrogen and sulphur are poisonous.

How recycling of certain things help in saving our environment? Explain.

(i) Recycling requires less land for dumping segregated wastes.
(ii) We can save natural resources by recycling of things.
For example, instead of synthesizing or extracting fresh plastic, paper, metal, etc. their wastes can be recycled.
(iii) By recycling we can prevent land, water or air from pollution.

Give four ways which shows your environment friendliness.

(i) We should use bus instead of personal vehicle.
(ii) We should use CFLs instead of bulbs.
(iii) We should use stair in place of lift where possible.
(iv) We should wear extra clothes instead of heating device.

Suggest a few measures for controlling carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.

(i) By reducing consumption of petrol.
(ii) By using CNG.
(iii) By treating smoke before discharge it into the atmosphere.
(iv) By preparing manure instead of burning of animal dung or any other waste.

Explain the term Global Warming?

Due to the greenhouse effect there is heating up of the earth atmosphere. CO2 levels hundred years ago were around 275 ppm nowadays and is expected to be 450 ppm by 2040. It is excepted that global mean temperature would rise by around 2oC by 2050. This would result in polar ice caps melting, sea levels rising, submergence of coastal areas and islands, global rainfall pattern change, more floods etc. All these are the effect of global warming.

Question: Can you suggest some changes in your school which would make it environment friendly?

    • Enough shrubs and trees can be planted in the school.
    • Student should be educated not to pluck leaves unnecessarily.
    • Students and teacher can be educated about environment conservation.
    • Water should not be wasted electricity can be saved; paper can be reused by using it in various crafts.
    • There can be move windows in school for natural light; seminars can be organized for spending environment awareness etc.
    • Compost pits may be made in safe corners of the school. Biodegradable wastes such as fallen leaves, twigs, waste papers, leftover food items etc., may be dumped compost pit to prepare compost.

10th Science Chapter 16 Important Questions Set – 9

How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of (a) forests and wildlife, (b) water resources and (c) coal and petroleum

(a) Forest and wildlife: Spread awareness about the need to conserve forests and wildlife take part in community activities with focus on conserving forests and wildlife; while going as a tourist in nature reserves follow all principal of conservation donate t organization helping in conservation of forests and wildlife.
(b) Water resources: Save water in your house; install a system of rain water harvesting in your house.
(c) Coal and petroleum: Save electricity and use less of it; install electricity gadget that use less power.

List five things you have done over the last one week to: (a) conserve our natural resources. (b) increases the pressure on our natural resources.

(a) To conserve our natural resources:
(i) saved electricity by switching off unused lamps and fans
(ii) install CFLs in my house
(iii) used public transport for school instead of parent’s car
(iv) took bath with less water than before and did not waste water
(v) took part in community awareness meeting regarding environmental conservation.

(b) To increase the pressure on natural resources:
(i) used more paper than required for printing on my computer
(ii) kept the fan on even when I was not in the room
(iii) wasted petrol by unnecessarily starting the motorbike and reviving it;
(iv) wasted food;
(v) burnt cracker on Diwali.

What is meant by the sustainable practices?

People living in forests areas need large quantities of firewood, small timber and bamboo. Implements for agriculture, fishing and hunting are largely made of wood. People also gather fruits, nuts and medicine from the forests. Their cattle also graze in forests areas. Before the Britishers came, people had been the resources were available in a sustainable manner.

What do you understand by the exploitation of resources?

Britishers exploited the forests ruthlessly. Forest people were forced to live in smaller areas making life difficult for them. Even after the Forests Department in independent India took over from the british local knowledge and local needs were ignored. Vast tracts of forest were planted with pine, teak or eucalyptus trees. Huge areas were cleared of vegetation. This destroyed a great amount of diversity in the areas. This was done to earn revenue for the forests department and to provide inputs to the timber, paper, lac, and sport industries at the cost of people living there.

What do you understand by the Irrigation method? Sate the Kulh irrigation method.

Irrigation methods like dams, tanks and canals have been used in various parts of India since ancient times. These were managed by local people and the requirement for agriculture and daily needs was met to a great extent. Now the big dams requirement and canals built by the government have led to the neglect of local irrigation methods. All there has been loss of control over the local water source by local people.

10th Science Chapter 16 Important Questions Set – 10

How does the water of the ganga polluted?

The river Ganga runs from Gangotri in Himalayas to Ganga Sagar in the Bay of Bengal. On its way, it is being turned into a drain by more than a hundred towns and cities that pour their garbage and excreta into it. It is polluted by other human activities like bathing, washing clothes and immersion of ashes and unburnt corpses. Industries also dump their effluents into the river.

Industrialisation is one main causes of deterioration of environment. Discuss.

This is correct that industrialization is one main causes of deterioration of environment. This is because
(i) Noise and air pollution from the industries have been established.
(ii) Industrial waste which is led to water bodies causes water pollution.
(iii) Gases like SO2 and NO2 which are emitted by the industries are toxic.
(iv) Radioactive radiations are emitted by nuclear power stations. These rays are highly toxic to human beings and other animals.

How is ozone both beneficial and damaging? How can we prevent the damaging effect of ozone?

Ozone is present at higher levels in the atmosphere. It is beneficial as it shields the earth surface from harmful ultraviolet radiations from the Sun These radiations are extremely harmful to organism as it causes skin cancer in human beings. Ozone in itself is a deadly poison and is very damaging. We prevent the damaging effects of ozone by not using synthetic chemicals like CFCs in refrigerators and fire extinguishers, as they result in breakdown of ozone to molecules oxygen.

Why the India shift toward the bigger dams?

After independence a number of large dams and canals have been built. These dams store water for irrigation and for generating electricity but there has been opposition to the construction of bigger dams such as Tehri dam on the river Ganga. Also there have been protested by Narmada Bachao Andolan to raising height of Sardar Sarovar Dam on river Narmada. The following issues are involved in the construction of large dams:
(i) It displaces a large number of peasants and tribals without adequate rehabilitation.
(ii) These projects swallow a large sum of money without delivering proportionate benefits.
(iii) They involve deforestation and loss of biological diversity leading to environment problems.

Why is it important to Check Dams?

In level terrain, water harvesting system are crescent shaped earthen embankments or low straight concrete and rubble check dams. Monsoon rains fill ponds beyond the structure. The main purpose of check dams is not to hold surface water, but to recharge ground water beneath. There are many advantages to stored water on ground. It does not dry up but spreads to recharge wells and provide breeding ground for mosquitoes like stagnant water in artificial lakes.

The Stake Holders to the Forests

The stake holders to the forests are:

    1. People who are dependent on the forest produce for various needs.
    2. Forests department of the government which owns the land and controls the resources from the forests.
    3. Industrialist who get the raw materials for the products from the forests.
    4. The wild life and nature enthusiasts who wants to conserve nature in its pristine form.
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